Contrary to the French expression that has come to characterise many national economies, laissez-faire, expats will find doing business in France is actually a bureaucratic affair. Heavy-handed interventionist policies dating back to World War II have created a particular French business culture that calls for government interaction at almost every level.
The World Bank ranked France 27 out of 189 countries in its Ease of Doing Business Survey for 2016. Specific business criteria that France ranked highly for include trading across borders (1st) and enforcing contracts (14th) and getting electricity (20th). It ranked poorly, however, for ease of registering property (85th) and paying taxes (87th).
Expats should understand that the French are very proud of their culture and language, and the attitude towards foreigners in France reflects this. For this reason, expats who want to succeed in business should make a serious attempt to learn the language and familiarise themselves with local customs and practices before working in France.
Business hours vary in France, with many companies opening between 8.30am and 9.30am and closing between 5.30pm and 7pm. However, with a government-set standard 35-hour work week, many companies are flexible, opting for shorter days or Friday afternoons off. In general, most businesses in France are open Monday to Friday between 10am and 4pm.
French is the primary language in France, with business rarely being conducted in English.
Business attire in France is formal, smart and stylish. It's also conservative, not flashy.
Gifts are not generally expected between colleagues or business associates in France, and appreciation may be better expressed through the hosting of a dinner or social event. In such social situations, however, gifts are appropriate as a sign of gratitude.
Women are entitled to equal treatment in France, and frequently occupy high positions in the French business world.
A handshake is an appropriate greeting for both men and women, but friends and colleagues are known to kiss on the cheek. French handshakes in particular are generally brisk and light.
Business culture in France
New arrivals may find it quite difficult to get to grips with business culture in France. On one hand, it can be formal with an adherence to hiearchical business structures and an emphasis on appearence. On the other hand, expats will need to incorprate some level of flexibility when it comes to deadlines and meetings.
The French are passionate people and this reflects in business culture. Spirited debates are common and expat businesspeople are expected to be able to intellectually defend their position. While arguments may be emotional, logic usually holds the most weight with French businesspeople.
Business culture in France is particularly hierarchical, with policy and vision conceived by upper management and carried out by junior employees. Socialising across hierarchical lines is unusual. Most senior managers in French companies hail from the elite Grandes Écoles schools and share a respect for intellectualism.
Expats may need to give their wardrobe some attention before delving into the business world, as appearance is very important in France. Business dress is typically stylish, as one might expect from the world’s fashion capital. Dark suits are appropriate, and clothes should be of good quality. Even occasions specified as informal require tastefully coordinated dress, including a jacket for men.
French businesspeople are very casual about punctuality, and it's not unusual for business associates to be 10 to 15 minutes late to a meeting. Similarly, deadlines may be considered negotiable unless otherwise stated.
When addressing a French businessperson, always use the formal titles 'monsieur' and 'madame' (Mr or Mrs). For those expats who don't speak French, it is polite to apologise for this upon introduction, but it's best to learn at least a few phrases, as English is not widely spoken in business.
Dos and don’ts of business in France
Do dress stylishly and wear quality business attire
Don't assume that people speak English
Don't make exaggerated claims
Do ensure that written communications are grammatically correct
Do expect to defend your ideas intellectually