Indonesia, the vast archipelago in Southeast Asia, boasts a rich mosaic of diverse cultures, languages and traditions unique to the region. As the world's fourth most populous country, it is a thriving hub of socioeconomic activity and a vibrant tapestry woven with a blend of ancient traditions and contemporary ethos. Indonesia boasts a diverse blend of ethnicities and languages, showcasing its rich historical tapestry and modern-day cultural evolution.

Boasting a population of approximately 278 million, Indonesia has seen steady growth in the last decade. Its ethnic diversity is profound, with over 1,300 distinct groups; however, 95 percent identify primarily as Native Indonesian. The Javanese, making up 42 percent of the total populace, dominate as the most substantial group, and the Sundanese make up about 15 percent. Other significant ethnic groups in Indonesia include the Batak, Minangkabau, Betawi, Bugis, Acehnese and Dayak.

While Indonesian serves as the official language, the collection of over 700 languages and dialects spoken represents the depth of its cultural diversity. A developing nation, Indonesia skews younger, with 24 percent of the population under 14 years.

Accessibility in Indonesia

While Indonesia has made efforts towards improving infrastructure and policies for people with disabilities, there is meagre supportive legislation and few programmes for people with limited mobility, making it a problematic destination for anyone with a disability to live and work in. Very few buildings, including international hotels and offices, have disabled access.

Public transport in Indonesia is not well adapted for those in wheelchairs, and pavements are riddled with potholes, loose maintenance holes, parked motorcycles and all kinds of street life. Even non-disabled people walk on roads rather than negotiate sidewalks. Things are better in the centre of Jakarta, but the city's suburbs and the rest of the country remain challenging.

In recent times, Indonesia has been proactively enhancing accessibility features, especially in its urban centres, with more public buildings undergoing renovations to become more inclusive.


Jakarta's Soekarno-Hatta International Airport offers accessibility features, but many passengers opt for paid premium services as ground handling staff are not always fully trained. Onward travel is by the DAMRI bus, Railink train or taxi, but using a taxi is recommended for expats. Wheelchair-adapted taxis can be pre-booked. The trip to Jakarta Central takes around 60 minutes outside of rush hour.


Wheelchair-accessible taxis, like Lifecare cabs, are available in major Indonesian cities. These should be booked in advance. Whilst there is no Uber, local versions such as Grab enable ride-hailing in urban areas – but accessibility features for individuals with mobility challenges are still limited. Private companies operate minivan services, and it's advised to agree on fares upfront before travel.


The principal bus service, Transjakarta (also called Busway), can be frustrating for those with impairments. The service is considered the world's largest single bus service, carrying over 10 million passengers a month – so it can get hectic. Bus shelters (stops) are often in the middle of the highway, accessed by steep, raised bridges. Much of the vehicle fleet has been renewed with low-floor entry, but journeys must be well planned ahead of time.


The Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system is relatively new, travelling around 10 miles (16 km) from north to south via 13 stations. The second and third phases are planned or under construction on an east-to-west route. Fares are payable using Jelajah, a contactless smart card. The system has won awards for accessibility and includes priority elevators, access ramps and toilet facilities.

Car hire

International car rental firms and local franchises are available, but few foreign visitors choose to drive themselves. Car and driver services are popular and safer than testing one's driving skills on Jakarta's congested streets. During much of the day, the average traffic speed in the city is slow, so well-planned travel using taxis or car hire tends to be the best option for getting from A to B.

Further reading

Accessible Indonesia
Disability Inclusion: Indonesia

LGBTQ+ in Indonesia

While Indonesia is known for its rich cultural heritage and modern cities, LGBTQ+ individuals still face societal challenges and prejudice. Traditional Indonesian society disapproves of homosexuality and transitioning, which limits progress in public policy, although this can vary widely between urban and rural areas. Some urban areas and youth groups have become more accepting and supportive of LGBTQ+ rights, signalling a potential shift in societal attitudes.

In December 2022, Indonesia instituted a new law criminalising extramarital sex. Since same-sex marriage is not recognised in Indonesia, this definitionally criminalises sexual activity between people of the same gender. In some provinces, homosexuality is punished by flogging or imprisonment. Interestingly, transgender identity is more accepted than gay, lesbian and bisexual identity – Waria (men born with the souls of women) live openly in daily life.

Further reading

Aljazeera: Indonesia passes new criminal code
Equaldex: LGBT Rights in Indonesia

Gender equality in Indonesia

Traditionally, Indonesian society has been male-dominated. Progress has been slow to counter inequality, but the government is committed to change. It has instituted the National Gender Mainstreaming Policy to improve equality in research, policy, dialogue and legislation. There are ongoing discussions, initiatives and movements advocating for gender equality, and the younger generation is leading the way in pushing for change.

Female literacy rates and educational attainment are relatively high, but executive opportunities are limited. Many women drop out of the labour market for child and home care, returning as small-scale entrepreneurs or self-employed workers. Women own about 60 percent of Indonesia's micro, small and medium enterprises – faring far better than in the corporate world.

Further reading

UN Women Indonesia

Women in leadership in Indonesia

The country is on the right track as it acknowledges women's crucial role in developing the national infrastructure and economy. The number of female directors and commissioners present in companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange is high and growing. Women in leadership in public and private companies make up around 20 percent. In government, over 21 percent of parliamentary seats are held by women.

Further reading

World Bank webinar: Indonesian Women in the Workplace
Women20 Indonesia

Mental health in Indonesia

It isn't uncommon to experience problems with one's well-being through concerns about work, family, finances or the future – including neglect or abuse. Although mental health awareness has increased in Indonesia in recent years, stigma and misunderstandings of mental health exist, especially in the country's outlying regions and smaller cities.

Mental health support is quite limited in Indonesia due to the low number of professionals working with such a large population. The Covid pandemic paved the way for innovative online mental health support and well-being initiatives in Indonesia, and access has expanded massively for those who can afford treatment.

Unconscious bias in Indonesia

Unconscious bias can emerge from living in societies where inequalities exist, eventually becoming internalised as prejudice. Bias surrounding gender, age and cultural background can hinder optimal recruitment processes, stifle professional growth and impact employee satisfaction. Some international organisations in Indonesia deploy training to counter ingrained thinking. It is considered less of a priority for smaller domestic enterprises, in line with many attitudes across Asia.

Diversification of the workforce in Indonesia

Embracing workplace diversity is now seen as pivotal for fostering innovation and maintaining a competitive edge in Southeast Asia. Diversity initiatives in Indonesia are focused on gender as the priority, followed by religion. Many companies, especially international corporations, are taking strides to promote diversity and inclusivity in the workplace.

On the other hand, research reveals that Indonesian attitudes highly emphasise ethnic and family backgrounds. Despite Indonesia's inclusive motto of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity), some industries still show preferences based on ethnic or regional backgrounds. Hiring decisions may be influenced by whether a prospective manager is Javanese, Sumatran or Moluccan – or from further afield. While less than 2 percent of the population is Chinese, these nationals play a crucial role in business and own over half the nation's private capital.

Safety in Indonesia

With a plethora of islands, including some of the globe's premier snorkelling and scuba diving destinations, Indonesia is an outstanding place to visit or make home. Like many other countries, it faces challenges ranging from natural disasters to occasional petty crimes and environmental concerns, including high levels of air pollution. 

Although crime rates aren't a big issue, expats should still be mindful of different customs and cultures. Most visitors and residents spend their time in Indonesia peacefully and problem-free.

Further reading

GOV.UK: Indonesia travel advice
US Travel Advisory: Indonesia

Women's safety in Indonesia

Expats are advised to dress modestly, especially in conservative Islamic areas. In Aceh, women are expected to wear headscarves and cover their arms whether they are Muslim or not. Indonesian men are generally very courteous, but a macho minority exists that is largely ignored by visitors and residents alike. Recent years have witnessed a surge in campaigns and initiatives championing women's safety and rights in Indonesia.

Festive dates in Indonesia

Indonesia has four holiday types: religious, national, international and commemorative. Those designated 'Tanggal Merah' (red date on a calendar) signify national holidays when the government, schools, banks and most businesses are closed. There are also extended holidays called 'Cuti Bersama' when most forms of transport are fully booked, typically during Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Christmas and New Year's Eve.

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